Curated and updated for the community by APA
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder that can occur in people who have experienced or witnessed a traumatic event such as a natural disaster, a serious accident, a terrorist act, war/combat, rape or other violent personal assault.
See definition, symptoms, & treatment
Using “power statements” can help people with serious mental illness clarify and communicate their personal goals for medication and treatment, according to a new study. A power statement is a short, self-advocacy statement prepared by a patient based on a template. The study found that people with serious mental illness typically view medications not only as a way to address symptoms, but as a means to pursue meaningful life goals.
The stigma, prejudice and discrimination of mental illness can be a major barrier for many people living with mental illness seeking and getting the help they need. It can make people avoid disclosing a mental health condition at work over concerns of being treated differently or even losing their job. Internalizing these negative stereotypes and perceptions (self-stigma) can further contribute to challenges.
You may have heard the phrase “trigger warning” to joke about a person’s perceived inability to deal with difficult subjects or adverse opinions. When it comes to mental health, learning about triggers can be an important step on the path to wellness.
Anxiety and Depression Association of America (ADAA)
Mental Health America
National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI)
Are there physical problems that are commonly associated with PTSD?
In addition to the thoughts and feelings identified in the What is PTSD? section, people with PTSD may also experience physical symptoms, such as increased blood pressure and heart rate, fatigue, muscle tension, nausea, joint pain, headaches, back pain or other types of pain. The person in pain may not realize the connection between their pain and a traumatic event. For people with chronic pain, the pain may actually serve as a reminder of the traumatic event, which in turn may intensify PTSD symptoms. Some people who develop PTSD and chronic pain also experience depression and alcohol and prescription medication misuse. Chronic PTSD has been shown to increase the risk of having a variety of health issues and decreased life expectancy. More
My spouse has just been diagnosed with PTSD, how can I best help?
A person contending with exposure to a traumatic event may feel helpless, prompting a concerned spouse to want to take action to help. Perhaps the most powerful approach is to just be there for the person, show acceptance and concern, and listen without being judgmental or giving advice. Allow your spouse to talk about the trauma only if he or she would like to and encourage additional support from family, friends and faith and community resources. Encouraging healthy living, such as attention to diet, exercise and refraining from smoking and excessive use of alcohol, is important. It would also be a good time to plan relaxing enjoyable leisure time activities.
Take some time to educate yourself about trauma, PTSD and recovery and healing. Learning about what your spouse may be going through will help you and your family to understand better and be more supportive. Remember to take care of your own physical and mental health as well. More
Why do some people get PTSD after a traumatic event and others don't?
Studies have found that in fact most people recover and do not develop PTSD after exposure to a major traumatic event. However some people find themselves feeling worse as time passes and experience the symptoms of PTSD. Several factors before and after a traumatic event seem to increase the likelihood of PTSD. For example, the risk is greater when the traumatic event is more severe, violent, occurs over a longer period of time or involves harm to oneself or loss of a loved one. Being around reminders of the traumatic event can also increase the risk. In general women are more likely than men and younger people more likely than older to experience PTSD. People who had early childhood emotional problems, especially exposure to traumatic events, are more susceptible, as are people who suffer from chronic medical or psychiatric illness. More
What's the difference between a normal reaction to a traumatic event and PTSD?
People react to experience of trauma in a variety of ways, such as sadness, irritability and confusion. In the immediate aftermath of a major traumatic event most people complain of stress, difficulty concentrating, sleeping or getting along with others. With PTSD, the troubling symptoms worsen, affect social and work functioning, and persist longer than a month. If you or a loved one are struggling to cope with the effects of a trauma it would be useful to seek professional help. More
About the Expert:
Spencer Eth, M.D. Professor of Psychiatry, University Miami School of Medicine Psychiatrist with Miami VA Healthcare System
Jared was a 36-year old married veteran who had returned from Afghanistan, where he had served as an officer. He went to the Veterans Affairs outpatient mental health clinic complaining of having “a short fuse” and being “easily triggered.”
Jared's symptoms involved out-of-control rage when startled, constant thoughts and memories of death-related events, weekly vivid nightmares of combat that caused trouble sleeping, anxiety and a loss of interest in hobbies he once enjoyed with friends. More
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FEB 21, 2017
Adolescents with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are more likely to misidentify sad and angry faces as fearful, while teens with symptoms of conduct disorder tend to interpret sad faces as angry, finds a study by NYU's Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development.
Memory is an incredible thing,” said the 70-year-old Riverside, California-based psychologist who will present a seminar March 18 in Albion on post-traumatic stress disorder and the impact it has on people who experience or witness traumatic events. The PTSD seminar is not only aimed at combat veterans, but encompasses people such as first responders (police, fire, emergency medical technicians and medical providers) and people who have been subjected to child abuse, domestic violence and physical and sexual abuse.
FEB 22, 2017
People who don’t appear disabled but walk with service dogs are people with invisible disabilities and depend on their animals. Chris Winkler got his service dog, Ryelie Jo, when she was just a month old. Now at 15 months, she helps Winkler in his civilian world. He was a combat Marine who served three tours and was honorably discharged 5 years ago.
National Center for PTSD
Make the Connections (Dept. of Veterans Affairs)
Mental Health American (MHA)
National Alliance on Mental Illness
Anxiety and Depression Association of America
National Institute on Mental Health (NIMH)
Wounded Warrior Project
Rape, Abuse and Incest National Network (RAINN)
Physician Review By:
Ranna Parekh, M.D., M.P.H.