All Topics

Get Help With Intellectual Disability

Curated and updated for the community by APA

Intellectual disability involves problems with general mental abilities that affect functioning in two areas:

  • intellectual functioning (such as learning, reasoning)
  • adaptive functioning (activities of daily life such as communication and independent living)

Intellectual disability affects about one percent of the population, and of those about 85 percent have mild intellectual disability.

See definition, symptoms, & treatment

  • Oct 16, 2017
Focus on Preventing Bullying

October is National Bullying Prevention Month, a national public awareness campaign led by PACER's National Bullying Prevention Center.

  • Oct 11, 2017
Mental Health: Many Challenges to Getting Needed Help

We’ll take a look at some data from 2016, the latest available, on how many people are affected, how many are getting treatment and why many are not getting treatment.

  • Oct 06, 2017
Racism and Mental Health

Racism contributes to socioeconomic inequality and social unrest. How does it affect mental health?

Upcoming Events

United Cerebral Palsy (UCP)

Find a local chapter
  • Fri,  Oct  13 - Tue,  Oct  31

ARC for People with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

The ARC National Convention
  • San Diego, Calif.
  • Thur,  Nov  02 - Sat,  Nov  04
TASH Annual Conference
  • Atlanta, Ga.
  • Wed,  Dec  13 - Fri,  Dec  15

I have heard the terms intellectual disability and developmental disability. Are they the same?

These terms are not the same, though there is some overlap. Developmental disability is a broad category that includes intellectual disability (ID) as well as autism spectrum disorder and other developmental diagnoses. Intellectual disability refers to people whose cognitive ability and adaptive functioning are significantly below average. People with autism spectrum disorder have difficulties with social interaction and impairments in communication; many also have intellectual disability. Read More

At what age can a child be evaluated for intellectual disability?

Parents and caretakers are often the first to notice delays in a child’s development.

If you’re concerned about the development of your infant or toddler, or you suspect your child has a disability, talk with your child’s pediatrician. You may also contact your local early Intervention program directly (see links below) and ask to have your child evaluated. Early intervention is a national system of services that helps babies and toddlers (birth to 3 years) with developmental delays or disabilities. Evaluation is provided free of charge.

See contact information for state early intervention programs. Learn more about early intervention from the Center for Parent Information and Resources. Read More

What is involved in diagnosing intellectual disability?

Intellectual disability involves problems in both intellectual and adaptive functioning.

Intellectual functioning is assessed with an exam by a doctor and through standardized testing. While a specific full-scale IQ test score is no longer required for diagnosis, standardized testing is used as part of diagnosing intellectual disability. A full scale IQ score of around 70 to 75 indicates a significant limitation in intellectual functioning. However, the IQ score must be considered in relation to the bigger picture of the person’s general mental abilities. Also, specific areas of intellectual functioning (identified in IQ subtest scores) can vary a great deal. So the full scale IQ score may not accurately reflect overall intellectual functioning.

Adaptive functioning refers to a child’s abilities with common skills needed for everyday life compared to other children the same age. Three areas of adaptive functioning are considered: conceptual (such as language and academic skills); social (such as communication skills and the ability to follow rules); and practical (such as personal care and other daily life skills). Adaptive functioning is assessed through standardized measures (questionnaires/checklists) with the individual and through interviews with family members, teachers and caregivers. Read More


About the Expert:

Mark J. Hauser, M.D.
Psychiatrist practicing in the Greater Boston Area
President, On-Site Psychiatric Services, Inc.

Jordan's Story


Jordan, 32, loves his work. He lives with and assists his aging grandparents. He is able to help them with cooking, cleaning, and exercising daily. Jordan has been very successful at helping his grandparents live independently by maintaining the basic chores of their home and keeping a structured environment for them. He describes himself as "a good helper." Read More

Have a Story of Your Own to Share?

Editor's Choice

AUG 3, 2017

Developmentally Disabled, and Going to College

New York Times

Ms. Muscatello and her peers belong to a pioneering group of students with significant intellectual disabilities who are enrolled in Syracuse’s InclusiveU.

The students — about 60 are expected this fall — have various degrees of disability, often with related developmental disorders.

AUG 8, 2017

Special Olympics athletes grow skills, friendships

Casper Star-Tribune Online

Tess Robinson played alongside Priscilla Dowse in the Unified Sports event, which partners Special Olympics competitors with an athlete without an intellectual disability. Dowse is the Special Olympics Wyoming president and has been involved in the movement for 40 years.

They bonded through jokes and laughter as they trained and competed together, they said.

AUG 8, 2017

Many People With Disabilities Are Being Paid Way Below Minimum Wage.

Mother Jones

According to the department, about 20 percent of people with disabilities participate in the workforce, and of that group, about 3 percent, or approximately 195,000 workers, are being paid subminimum wages. These workers typically make well below the minimum wage, sometimes as low as “pennies per hour,” according to the Department of Justice.

AUG 1, 2017

Miss Teen USA's powerful message about disability rights: Tolerance isn't enough

USA Today

Inspired by her aunt who has Down syndrome, Dominguez-Heithoff first visited the Missouri Capitol at the age of 15 to advocate for people with developmental disabilities, later presenting research to the Senate and House for a bill that would provide quality care to disabled Missourians.